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【CSDN Editor's note 】 Before TIOBE In the annual list , A knife never dies C Language successful counter attack
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, become 2017 Programming language of the year . In this paper , We combined the most authoritative  TIOBE List , The world's largest job engine  Indeed.com, And one of the most active communities in the code  
GitHub, Which programming language has been the most popular in the past year ? Which programming languages have been standing ?2018 What is the language trend of ?JavaScript
Why is it abandoned ? In this paper, we will answer these questions one by one .




Here is the translation :

The world is driven by technology , All walks of life have been fundamentally changed by technology , And the core of these technologies is the programming language . In this paper, we summarize 2017
The most popular and influential programming language in , An opportunity for developers to improve their skills , It's going to be a very valuable guide for the next decade .

There are hundreds of metrics that can be used to measure programming languages , In this paper, we only focus on the following most authoritative indicators :

*
TIOBE: By integrating data sources around the world ,TIOBE  The list is updated every month .

*
Indeed.com: As the world's largest job engine ,Indeed Is a good measure of programming work , Can help research  TIOBE  Top of the list 50 Number of programming language vacancies for .

*
GitHub:GitHub Is one of the most active code bases today , Every year they create an annual review , Share statistics from their community of programmers . This article quotes their metrics “Pull
Requests Opened” Another indicator of language popularity .

This paper also predicts the future of programming languages , We use a variety of resources to predict the fastest growing languages , The most influential language , And the language most likely to lose popularity .

The most popular programming language



Above  TIOBE Data shows up to 2017 year 12 Before the month 20 The most popular programming language , Percentage refers to what a language has “ market share ” number , Total of all languages
100%. As shown in the figure ,Java,C,C++ Top three , High market share ,Python in the nick of , Market share has increased significantly compared with the previous years .



Indeed.com The data shows the most demanding programming positions , From TIOBE Selected in index 50
The most popular language , Through the job search, we get the top job demand 20 Languages . The most popular Java language , They also have the largest number of vacancies . But what's interesting is that , similar  Apex
These less popular languages are also in front of job openings 20 name , This may mean that the popularity of these languages is on the rise .



“Github Annual review ” Provides the first 15 name  “Pull Requests”,“Pull Requests”
Is a way to submit contributions to open development projects .Javascript stay GitHub It takes a large proportion , More than twice as much as the second language .2017 year ,Python adopt  
“Pull Requests”  exceed Java Become the second most popular language .

Five top programming languages and analysis of their popularity


Why are these top programming languages so popular ? The following will be studied in depth  Java,C,Python,JavaScript,Ruby  The top five languages , Understand how they are used and why people like them .

Java First place

Java since 90 Since its establishment in the mid-s , Has always been the most popular language . Many large companies in the world use Java To build desktop applications and back ends Web system .

Java There are many popular factors :

*
Portability : Due to platform independent Java virtual machine (JVM),Java It can run on almost all systems . in addition Java It's also the most popular Android
language , So most of them Android Applications use Java Constructed .

*
Scalability :Java Designed for scalability , So it's popular with startups . And because Java
Is a statically typed language , So it's faster to maintain , Easier to maintain , And backward compatibility , This means that the old version of the language works perfectly even after the new version is released , Don't worry about rewriting code when a new version comes up .

*
Large community . Because of the huge user base , And a lot of Stack Overflow and GitHub community , Almost any problem developers encounter can be solved .

C Language is still popular

C It's the oldest , One of the most popular programming languages , Thanks to its near universal portability , And Microsoft , Apple ,Linux And Oracle .C
Language is also a car , The most popular language for embedded systems in electronics and other devices . Everything we touch today , From cell phone to alarm clock , Basically C The influence of direct language writing .

So why is it still popular today , Even won 2017 TIOBE Programming language of the year for the list
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? first , It is essentially a portable assembly language , Applicable to almost all systems . secondly ,C It also has fully compliant operating system and embedded system ( Such as automobile dashboard ) Characteristics of . in addition , Any programmer can learn from C
Benefit from language learning , Many online algorithms are written and shared in C Completed in .

C Language is programming language in essence “ General language ”, image C ++ and C# In this way C Derivatives are also the most popular 5 One of the languages , It also explains why C
Language still has great influence today .



Rising Python

in the past 15 Mid year ,Python Has been on a steady rise , It finally broke through a few years ago TIOBE
Top five on the list , This is because of machine learning , artificial intelligence (AI), Big data and other technologies are heavily dependent on Python. In addition, network security is also one of the important issues in our era , Also by Python
Driven .

Python Now it's the most popular introductory language in the University , It is also often listed as a second or third language by experienced developers .

JavaScript Continue to dominate

Thanks to the ubiquitous web browser ,JavaScript Become one of the most popular programming languages in the world , And  GitHub  Of  “Pull Requests”  Top of the list .

JavaScript Allow developers to add interactive effects to web pages , It is often associated with HTML Working together , Now use it alone JavaScript To build Web
Applications are becoming more common . Because of its simplicity and efficiency , More and more start-ups and technology companies are passing Node.js Framework in the back end JavaScript.

Entrepreneur's favorite —— Ruby

Ruby One of the most popular languages for tech start-ups , Many Silicon Valley unicorns are built on Ruby upper , include Airbnb,Twitch,GitHub and
Twitter.Ruby on Rails It's a run Ruby Integrity of Web Application framework , It also drives  Ruby Popularity of .

meanwhile ,Ruby It is also favored by many developers . first ,Ruby There is a simple and beautiful grammar , Let developers do more with less code . secondly ,Ruby on Rails
Can make Web Applications take less time to run than other frameworks .

however Ruby Lack of scalability , It's a dynamically typed language , Very flexible . But with Ruby
Application growth , The dynamic nature of language hides the source of code errors , And consume a lot of computing resources —— This is also Twitter from Ruby Switch to Java Why .



Twitter Original use Ruby, Later switch to Java, This makes it easier to scale

2018 Prediction of programming language trend in

According to the trend of previous years , We are sure that the list of top programming languages will not change much every year . So where is the change going to happen ? 

Kotlin,C  Fastest growing

TIOBE Every year, we check the language of the year , In recent years, the winners are Go(2016),Java(2015) and JavaScript(2014). stay TIOBE
2017 Before the annual programming language ,Kotlin Zeng and C Together, they become candidates for the language of the year , Although in the end C win victory , But there's no denying it , Both are in the stage of rapid development —— The oldest  
C language (1987 year ), abreast of the times Kotlin language (2011 year ) .

Kotlin

For statically typed programming languages Kotlin In terms of ,2017 It went through a series of great events in : Named Android Official development language of the platform , Not only become Android
The most popular mobile development platform , It's still Windows Desktop and Linux The third most popular development platform .

Kotlin There are several reasons why , The most important thing is that it Java Of 100% Interoperability , And Java virtual machine (Java It's another kind of official Android
language ) Facts running on .Kotlin Can be compiled into JavaScript, So it's flexible in front-end and back-end development .

C language

As we mentioned before ,C It is the perfect language of embedded system . and C
It is also one of the top programming languages for Internet of things devices , Includes wearable devices and car dashboard . As more products become “ clever ”, We will see C Will continue to expand the use of .

Native languages will have more attempts to move towards hardware

The popularity of programming languages is one thing , But which languages will have a big impact in the next few years ? Determine if the language is “ Influential ” To see the technologies built on it , It also depends on the ability of this language to solve the inherent software problems .

Moore's law states , The computing power will be 18 Double in months , And for the first time in decades, computer chip makers
Not keeping up with the development of computing power . This means that software developers need to find a way , With the same computing power to make powerful Web
application program . In addition, the power consumption of hardware should be considered , So we need to make hardware and software as efficient as possible .

Proven facts , Faster and faster response capabilities allow you to write more efficient code , And we can expect Go,Swift,Rust In the future, there will be more attempts to move towards hardware .

JavaScript Will lose value ?

that  2018 What languages will begin to lose value in ? “JavaScript.”

In the past few years ,Javascript It has reached a very popular level , So there's really no way to find the future .



In addition, there are other factors superimposed on JavaScript upper . first ,WebAssembly The improvement provides more web language choices for developers . in other words , There will be many languages in the near future
WebAssembly back-end . after JavaScript Will begin to die , Because people will use their preferred language for clients Web development . Plus JavaScript
The use of , Once there's a better one Web option , Believe that developers will soon abandon it .

Write at the end

Programming language driven technology world , Opportunities and challenges coexist . From machine learning to network security , From network applications to battery powered , For software developers , I hope the trend forecast in this paper can give you some guidance .

But no matter how the technological environment changes , It's not wrong to keep an enterprising mind , The following is an inventory of some programming language learning resources , I hope it works for you :

Java

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https://www.codecademy.com/learn/learn-java

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https://stackify.com/content/java/

C

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https://www.learn-c.org/

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https://www.amazon.com/Programming-Language-2nd-Brian-Kernighan/dp/0131103628

C++

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http://www.learncpp.com/

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https://hackr.io/tutorials/learn-c-plus-plus

Python

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https://www.codecademy.com/learn/learn-python

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https://stackify.com/best-developer-podcasts/

C#

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https://mva.microsoft.com/en-us/training-courses/c-fundamentals-for-absolute-beginners-16169

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https://www.learncs.org/

JavaScript

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https://www.codecademy.com/learn/learn-javascript

*

https://medium.com/coderbyte/50-resources-to-help-you-start-learning-javascript-in-2017-4c70b222a3b9

original text :Most Popular and Influential Programming Languages of 2018

link :https://stackify.com/popular-programming-languages-2018/

author :BEN PUTANO

compile : Speech principle




————— Recommended reading —————

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