Reprint :http://www.cehui8.com/lunwen/GIS/20131209/1521.html
<http://www.cehui8.com/lunwen/GIS/20131209/1521.html>

abstract
: Agricultural sector as an important production sector ,GIS Play a role is not to be underestimated .GIS The application in the field of agriculture is mainly reflected in the following aspects :1):GIS Application of agricultural disaster prediction and control ;2):GIS Application of technology in soil and water conservation ;3):GIS Application of agricultural resources investigation and management ;4):GIS Application of agricultural adaptability evaluation ;5):GIS Application of agricultural ecological environment research ;6):GIS Application of GIS in agroclimatic Division ;7):GIS Application in crop yield estimation and detection ;8):GIS Russian function of automatic crop planting .

key word :GIS   Agriculture    present situation    prospect

GIS Geographic information system (Geographic Information
System), GIS is based on geospatial database , With the support of computer software and hardware , Using the theory of systems engineering and Information Science , Scientific management and comprehensive analysis of geographic data with spatial connotation , To provide management , Technical system of information needed for decision making, etc . It has data acquisition and editing , Attribute data editing and analysis , Spatial database management , drafting , spatial analysis , Topology query , Overlay analysis , Geological analysis and other functions , It is the fastest growing in the world today , Widely used systems . After half a century of development ,GIS The theory and technology are quite mature , And has been widely used . In resource management , Environmental assessment , Disaster prediction , Land management , city planning , Transportation , Water conservancy, hydropower, forestry and animal husbandry ,GIS The role and contribution of the system are very significant . Of course, as an important production sector, the agricultural sector ,GIS Play a role is not to be underestimated .GIS The application in the field of agriculture is mainly reflected in the following aspects :

1)GIS Application of agricultural disaster prediction and control

2)GIS Application of technology in soil and water conservation

3)GIS Application of agricultural resources investigation and management

4)GIS Application of agricultural adaptability evaluation

5)GIS Application of agricultural ecological environment research

6)GIS Application of GIS in agroclimatic Division

7)GIS Application in crop yield estimation and detection

8)GIS The function of automatic crop planting

I will elaborate each application in sections below , And its development status and prospects are described .

One   GIS Application in specific agricultural field

GIS The application in specific agricultural fields mainly includes the following seven fields , They are respectively

( One )GIS Application of agricultural disaster prediction and control


As the earth's climate changes , Various complex and extreme climate stratification is incomplete , flood , drought , sandwind , Freezing is a major meteorological and climatic disaster endangering agriculture , In the struggle between human beings and natural disasters ,GIS Can make a significant contribution to people in this regard . In the detection of natural disasters GIS And GPS,RS The combination and utilization of technology has provided scientific basis and macro world outlook for disaster reduction, prevention and control . For disaster areas , According to GIS The disaster area is calculated by the data provided , The financial resources of those who need to be dealt with , At the same time, according to the GIS The spatial characteristics of , Analysis of historical data of a place , Thus, the temporal and Spatial Laws of disasters are deduced , Forecast disaster and provide macro and micro data to analyze countermeasures .

( Two )GIS Application of technology in soil and water conservation

at present G IS  It has become an analysis of soil erosion , Planning and design of soil and water conservation , Important tools for soil and water conservation monitoring .

 1)GIS  Application of technology in soil erosion analysis

GIS  Technology in soil erosion analysis ,  It is mainly used G IS  And RS  Organic combination of Technology , That is to use RS  Satellite remote sensing images provided by technology ,  adopt GIS Technology to input graphics and attributes ,
output , Modification and query functions , Thus the information system of soil erosion is established , It provides scientific basis for the later soil and water conservation work .

2)GIS  Application of technology in soil and water conservation monitoring

It is mainly used for soil erosion monitoring , Management benefit supervision, etc .G IS  The application of the technology makes the monitoring work more dynamic ,
make scientific ,  Especially the monitoring and management of small watershed as a unit , It can timely and accurately implement the situation of soil erosion and control benefits in the work of soil and water conservation in small watershed , bring G
IS  Technology plays an important role in soil and water conservation monitoring .

( Three )GIS The application in the investigation and management of agricultural resources


Agricultural resources are all kinds of materials and energy used by people engaged in agricultural production or agricultural economic activities . The investigation of agricultural resources is to check the attributes of agricultural resources .GIs Establish the spatial and statistical database of these attributes , The information comes from soil map , Climate map , Various statistical reports, etc .GIS Organic combination of graphics and database , It can realize the computer integration of agricultural resources archives , Serve for the automatic management of agricultural resources . utilize GIS The built information system is more scientific than the traditional database management system , Spatial data is more timely , Agricultural resources statistics table and graphics output at the same time makes the information more intuitive . From this we can see that GIS It plays an important and indispensable role in the investigation and management of modern agricultural resources .

( Four )  GIS Application of agricultural adaptability evaluation


The suitability evaluation of agricultural land is based on the comprehensive identification of the natural attributes of agricultural land , Classification of agricultural land according to quality difference , In order to clarify that under a certain level of science and technology , The advantages and disadvantages of agricultural land in various utilization modes and its relative suitability to crops , It is an important work of agricultural land use decision . utilize GIS Soil suitability evaluation is about soil types , texture , Organic matter content and other land spatial and attribute data were integrated , The importance of crop growth was calculated and evaluated according to each factor , Land suitability classification .

( Five )  GIS Application of agricultural ecological environment research


Agricultural ecological environment is an important subject in agricultural development , Agricultural ecological environment has a direct impact on agricultural production and rural living environment . How to realize the good agricultural ecological environment ,GIS It can play an important role . basis GIS Model function of , Combined with the daily work requirements of environmental monitoring , Resume agricultural ecological environment model , The dynamic change and development trend of agricultural ecological environment in the region were simulated to provide basis for decision-making and management ; meanwhile , Due to the regionality of pollution sources , The mobility of pollutants and regional gradient change , use GIS As a support system, it can evaluate the environmental quality more scientifically and intuitively .

( Six )  GIS Application of GIS in agroclimatic Division

Agricultural climate resources not only change in space, but also change with time . With the traditional zoning method , Lack of intuitive spatial data reflection , It is also difficult to change in time with time .GI
S The application of technology just solves this problem difficulty . Establishment of climate resources and geographical elements information database with GIS software , And to the digital elevation model , Establishment of meteorological data calculation model
, Then, the spatial analysis and comprehensive evaluation of several climatic elements were carried out according to the crop climate regionalization index , Objective and fine climate resources and crop climate regionalization results were obtained . The method is :

   1) Establishment of meteorological data database

2) Establishment of geographic information database

3)  Establishment of spatial analysis model

( Seven ) GIS Application in crop yield estimation and detection


The estimation and detection of crop yield is very important for national grain policy and grain import and export . It mainly includes the estimation and detection of planting area and yield . at present 3S Technology has been used in many countries to analyze agricultural market . In this way, we can reduce the excessive investment in human and financial resources , And it can get more accurate data , It's a scientific method of estimation and detection , It plays a very important role .

( Eight ) The role of crop planting in precision agriculture


Precision agriculture , He means remote sensing , telemetering ,GPS\GIS, computer technology , Self irrigation , Self cultivation , Harvest your own technology , Save technology and so on , Small scale farmland , High tech system directly combined with agricultural production activities and management at micro scale ,GIS It is an important link , Its application in precision agriculture mainly includes :

1) It is the bearing platform and foundation , All kinds of data flow in and out, as well as the decision-making management of information GIS.

2) It's the core component , The combination of other hardware and software systems , It plays the role of collecting welding .

3) It is used to collect various farmland land data , Edit statistics , Analysis of different types of spatial data .

4) It completes the important work and link of drawing and analyzing agricultural professional map such as crop yield distribution map .


To sum up, it can be seen that in various specific areas of agriculture GIS Play its important and unique role , of course GIS It's not just about the top eight uses , At the same time, it is used to evaluate the input and benefit of agricultural drugs , Spatial distribution of farmland irrigation , Comprehensive pollution control , Agrometeorological planning also plays an important role , Believe that with GIS Continuous development of functions and agricultural intensification , modernization , The development of informatization GIS It will play an important role in more specific fields .

Two  GIS The development status in the field of Agriculture

G I S Introduced into agricultural research and practice , It has been used in agricultural macro decision-making , Agricultural scientific research and production management , Including the contents of the previous section . The above application mainly depends on  G I
S Powerful function of data processing and analysis , Therefore, the following will be from G I S Angle , This paper expounds the application status in various agricultural fields .   

( One ) Visualization of agricultural information and thematic map making

GIS Compared with the general information system , It has the function of spatial information visualization , You can display different types of spatial information in a 2D plane
, Three dimensional display and dynamic display are vividly and intuitively transmitted to users . Based on GIS The generated digital elevation model (DEM) Not only the production process is relatively simple, but also gives people a visual sense of reality , It can reappear the regional terrain features more truly ,
It has been widely used in agriculture . Mapping function GI It's a basic function , for example , utilize GIS It can not only make basic thematic information map for agricultural research , We can also make the coverage map of diseases and insect pests , Cultivated land fertility grade map , Agricultural thematic maps such as crop yield distribution map and agroclimatic division .

( Two ) Convenient query and statistics of agricultural information

 GIS Based on the spatial relationship , Query method of information query based on attribute feature and address matching , Its spatial query ability is powerful . Query of agricultural information , Mainly with G I
S Based on the established agricultural information geographic database , Different grades Other users can choose different ways to query and obtain the agricultural information they need , in addition ,G I It also has statistical function , Sub regions where agricultural data are available
, Soil classification type , Statistical information of agricultural land type and user level .

( Three ) Massive agricultural information collection and management

  Agriculture is affected by both natural and social environment , Agricultural information is complex, and the amount of data is huge , For modern agriculture , The traditional data management method has been unable to Meet the needs of information agriculture .G I
S It can not only collect and store remote sensing data ,G P
S data , Maps, statistics and other data information , And it can manage data efficiently . at present , be based on  GIS It can collect, store and manage a variety of different types of massive agricultural information data . These different types of data are GIS In order to achieve efficient storage and management in the way of geographic database , And solve the errors in data collection from the root , For the subsequent processing and analysis made a good preparation , The error is reduced .

( Four ) Spatial analysis and modeling of agricultural information


1) Spatial analysis function is GIS The biggest function different from other information systems . Spatial interpolation is one of the most commonly used spatial analysis methods in agriculture , Buffer analysis , Overlay analysis , Terrain analysis , Watershed analysis and spatial statistical analysis . These spatial analysis methods can be combined with various special models , Forecasting of agricultural information
, Evaluation and division, etc , For agricultural decision making real time , Reliable and fast basis .

2)G I S Spatial analysis and model function of , It can simulate the dynamic change of agricultural ecological environment in the region 化和发展趋势,为决策和管 理( 部门) 提供依据.

3)在耕地土壤空间变异性研 究上常使用 G IS提供的空间插值方法来研究整个区 域上的养分空间变异特性 , 分析土壤空间分布成因,
以便了解整个区域土壤养分状况, 及时调节土壤机能.

4)在在农业病虫害管 理工作中的应用, 可以利用 G I S所提供的叠置分析,缓 冲区分析等分析方法来分析病虫害规律和环境,对病虫害进行的有效,可持续控制.

5)在农业气候区划应用中,G I
S的空间分析功能和传统的区划方法结合,可以分析农业气候资源和空间地理条件对农作物布局的综合影响,得到客观精细的农业气候区划成果, 给当地农业生
产决策提供可靠依据.

6)在农作物估产方面,可构建出不同条件下作物生长模型和多种估产模式 ,估算出大面积的作物的产量和长相长势.

7)在农业土地利用适宜性评价中,利用GI对土壤,气候和农作物数叠置匹配分析,并进行地理建模
,获取不同农作物不同土地适宜性程度,从而为合理地调整和规划农作物布局以及种植制度提供科学依据.G I S 事实上在农业施肥管理, 水资源管理,
保护与规划等许多方面也有其身影.

(五):GIS的在农业推广应用的主要限制因素:

尽管GIS的技术水平及前景广阔但是其的发展与推广除了广泛的用途之外也面临着发展的瓶颈,其主要表现在:

1)  软件与硬件的不适宜性.

2)  信息数据的更新迟缓,数据收集难.

3)  系统质量有待提高.

三:GIS在农业方面的发展前景:


GIS随着技术的不断进步,应用的不断广泛,其发展有着广阔的前景.在农业方面GIS作为现代化农业得以实现的重要技术支撑,利用其自身优势已经在农业领域发挥着重要作用,在我国农业领域应用不断扩大和发展.按G
I S发展趋势在农业中的应用前景有下面的内容:

1 ) 应用型 G I S与专家系统结合,产生智能 GIS系统,可以非常有效的解决农业领域复杂的空间问题 ;

2 ) 真三维GIS将更真实,更具体的展示农业资源信息和
农业信息分析结果;                                                       3 ) 网络 G I
S,利用强大的网络技术,实现协同工作,数据共享,实现空间信息网络化,可为农业信息的共享 ,分布式查询
,分析以及辅助决策和管理提供服务;                                    

4 ) 移动 G I S可在不同时空不同用户供不同的信息服务 ,用户可以将农业调查数据随时随地入库 ,也可以对各种农业信息进行随时随地的查询 ,管理和分析;

 5 ) G I S与遥感( RS ) ,全球定位 系统( G P S ) 等信息技术充分集成, 为各种农业信息的采 集,存储
,分析,处理和应用提供支持,以实现农业信息化,数字化和现代化. 


GIS不断地完善技术不断地进步,在现代农业与农业集约化信息化的趋势下,GIS在农业方面得到不断应用和推广也随着二者相向发展和需求应用领域不断深化.他在农业灾害预测与控制,自动农作物种植俄,农业资源调查和管理,开展农业适应性评价,农业生态环境研究,农业气候区划,农作物估产与检测,水土保持等方面均有不同程度应用.GIS在农业方面前景也十分广阔,随着GIS的发展,农业发展的需求,GIS在农业领域的应用会更广阔.

 

参考文献:


《GIS发展应用综述》陈军,李洁,南立波国防科技大学信息系统与管理学院,湖南.长沙410073;2华为技术上海终端公司基础业务部,上海200127;3中国人民解放军71309部队二中队,河南襄城461700

《地理信息系统(GIS)的发展及在农业领域的应用现状与展望》王璐,翟义欣,王 菲.

《地理信息系统(GIS)的发展及在农业领域的应用现状与展望》及《GPS和GIS技术在精准农业监控系统中的应用研究进展》史国滨

浅谈G I S在农业领域中的应用现状及前景 朱小燕 ( 甘肃农业大学 资源与环境学院, 甘肃 兰州 7 3 0 0 7 0 )

《浅谈GIS在农业领域中的应用现状及前景》 朱小燕