The Internet of things (IOT) is a technology hotspot in the present and even in the future , However, many people are still unfamiliar with the Internet of things , As summarized below 20 Questions can help you understand the Internet of things in a comprehensive way .



        1, What is the Internet of things ?

       
Generally speaking . The Internet of things is “ Internet connected with things ”. This has two meanings : first , The core and foundation of the Internet of things is still the Internet , Is an extension and expansion of the Internet on the basis of a network ; second , Its client end extends and extends to any item , Information exchange and communication . therefore , The definition of Internet of things is through radio frequency identification (RFID) device , Infrared sensor , Global positioning system , Laser scanner and other information sensing equipment , As agreed , Connect anything to the Internet , Information exchange and communication , To achieve intelligent recognition , location , track , A network for monitoring and management .

       
Not all objects can be classified into the Internet of things , What kind of requirements should the IOT meet to be included in the scope of IOT ? The following conditions need to be met :1, There should be a receiver for the corresponding information ;2, There should be a data transmission path ;3, Must have certain storage function ;4, need CPU;5, Have an operating system ;6, There should be special applications ;7, We need a data transmitter ;8, Follow the communication protocol of the Internet of things ;9, There is a unique number that can be identified in the world network .

        And the focus is on sensing , Not the Internet .

        2, What are the application fields of the Internet of things ?

       
The Internet of things is widely used , All over intelligent transportation , environmental protection , Government work , Public safety , Safe home , Intelligent fire protection , Industrial monitoring , Elderly care , Personal health , Flower cultivation , Water system monitoring , food traceability , Enemy investigation and intelligence collection and other fields . In fact, the future Internet of things can go deep into all areas of our lives

       
Internet of things IT Technology is fully used in all walks of life , speak specifically , It's about embedding and equipping sensors into the grid , Railway , bridge , Tunnel , highway , Architecture , Water supply system , dam , Oil and gas pipelines and other objects , Then the “ Internet of things ” Integration with the existing Internet , Realize the integration of human society and physical system , In this integrated network , Super powerful central computer cluster , Be able to integrate people within the network , machine , Real time management and control of equipment and infrastructure , on this basis , Human beings can manage production and life in a more refined and dynamic way , achieve “ wisdom ” state , Improving resource utilization and productivity , Improving the relationship between man and nature .

        But this day has come a long way , At least at this stage, there is a long way to go

        3, The principle of Internet of things ?

        The principle of the Internet of things is actually mentioned in the concept of the Internet of things ,
Here, the principle of the Internet of things is embodied from the perspective of application , Reveal the principle of Internet of things in a comparative way .“ Internet of things ” The emergence of concepts , Break the traditional thinking . The idea in the past has been to combine physical infrastructure with IT Infrastructure separation : One is the airport , highway , building , The other is the data center , personal computer , Broadband, etc . And in the “ Internet of things ” times , reinforced concrete , The cable will be connected to the chip , Broadband integration into a unified infrastructure , In this sense , Infrastructure is more like a new earth site , The world works on it , This includes economic management , Production operation , Social management and personal life .

        4, Three application architectures of Internet of things ?

        be based on RFID Application architecture of Internet of things

        Application architecture of Internet of things based on sensor network

        be based on M2M Application architecture of Internet of things

        5, The composition of a complete Internet of things system or industrial chain is divided into several layers ?

        At present, the industry has a relatively unified view that there should be three levels :
Terminal equipment or subsystem , Communication link system , And management and application systems . I attribute it to Device— equipment ,Connect— connect , and Manage— Administration .

        China Mobile also summarizes the Internet of things into three layers : Perceptual layer , Network layer and application layer . In popular terms :
The first level is overall perception , Let's “ matter ” Meeting “ speak ”, become “ smart items ”, Identify it or collect data ; The second is reliable delivery , It is to transmit information reliably through the existing various wired and wireless communication networks ; The third is intelligent processing , Process and display the collected data .

        bottom : Devices( Equipment or assets )

        In non-technical terms , The object of the Internet of things to connect and service is the end device (Devices) And various assets (Assets).
This includes stationary or moving assets , All kinds of application systems based on microprocessors , Various smart cards and RFID Card and so on , The number is more than one trillion .

       
DCM of “D”( Terminal equipment ), That is, the sensor node of the sensing layer in the three-layer division , There is a new word in the terminology of sensor networks , be called Mote( Dust or intelligent dust ). each Mote Contains a microprocessor ( Usually low power consumption MCU), Wireless communication chip , Various sensors , Enough memory and hardware capability , It can perform monitoring and control tasks with low power consumption .

       
Because the importance of monitoring the physical environment has never been more prominent than it is today , The Internet of things has received great attention , It has been suggested that M2M The concept is not broad enough , because M2M Medium Machine Not all of them “ matter ”(Things), It should be used T2T This word . actually , No, MCU Of “ object ” You can't connect to the Internet , only MCU-enable What can become “ smart items ” Become part of the Internet of things . For example, a water quality monitoring sensor needs to be installed GPRS communication module , can “ Speak up ”; But there are “Devices” It has its own “ Speak up ” function , Such as smart card ,RFID Cards, mobile phones, etc .

        middle level : Connect( Connection and communication )

        The communication layer of the Internet of things is a bridge connecting intelligent devices and control systems , There are two kinds of popular words :
“ Flying in the sky ” wireless (Wireless) Communications and “ On the ground ” wired (Wireline) signal communication .

        upper strata : Manage

        ( Management and application software )

        Management and application software are the key factors in the industry chain of Internet of things , Is its core and soul . Internet of things software can include :
M2M Middleware and ( Embedded )Edgeware( It can also be called software gateway ), Real time database , Running environment and integration framework , General basic component library , And industrial application suite . Common basic functions include :
Remote monitoring , automatic alarm , control , Diagnosis and maintenance , System linkage , data mining , Report and decision support , Energy saving analysis , Asset tracking and maintenance , And ERP/CRM/OA/MES/SCM The overall integration of the system and so on .

        6, What are the key links in the IOT industry chain ?

       
The last question is about the hierarchy of the industrial chain , This problem is about the key link of the industrial chain , In fact, everyone said the same thing , It's just that some nouns are called differently , The key link can be directly representing a certain level , It can also be the main aspect of a certain level , The Internet of things industry chain is composed of application solutions , Sensing , Transmission communication , Four key links of operation processing , And take the application solution as the core . From the perspective of industrial chain composition , The Internet of things is based on application solutions , To apply solutions , Sensing , Transmission communication , Integrated innovation value chain with operation processing as key link . among , Application solution is the core , The Internet of things in a very long period of time , Will be in the face of a specific application and exist . Innovation of Internet of things , Popularization and Application , It will focus on the integration and innovation of specific application solutions . Sensing is the foundation . As the nerve endings of the Internet of things , The demand for sensors will be the largest and most basic link in the whole chain .

        7,RFID What is technology ?

       
The last question said that sensing is a very important technology in the Internet of things , And what's important is RFID (RFID) technology . So let's talk about the most important one RFID technology .RFID It's radio frequency identification (Radio
Frequency
Identification) Technical abbreviation , yes 20 century 90 An automatic recognition technology that began to rise in the S , It is an advanced non-contact recognition technology .  More popular   and
RFID, It's the ability to make objects “ Speak up ” A technology of . stay “ Internet of things ” In the conception of ,RFID Tags store normative and interoperable information , They are automatically collected to the central information system through wireless data communication network , Implement items ( commodity ) Identification of , And then through the open computer network to achieve information exchange and sharing , Realize the “ transparent ” Administration .

        8, What are the development steps of the Internet of things ?

       
The development of Internet of things in practical application needs the participation of all walks of life , And it needs the guidance of the national government and the support of relevant laws and policies , The development of Internet of things has scale , Broad participation , Management , technical , The attributes of things and so on , among , The technical problem is the most critical issue of the Internet of things . Please note that , We will talk about the gap between China and developed countries on this issue , In fact, the main gap is here , I think the main steps of the Internet of things are as follows :

        (1) Identify object attributes , Properties include static and dynamic properties

        (2) The recognition device is needed to complete the reading of object attributes , And convert the information into a data format suitable for network transmission

        (3) The information of the object is transmitted to the information processing center through the network

        9, Three development stages of Internet of things industry

        The development steps of the Internet of things is the specific building process of the Internet of things , To ask this question, it is the process of industrial development at a higher level .

       
According to the prediction of Great Wall strategic consulting , Internet of things industry in China 10 year 3 Stage development roadmap , Form three major market segments , It also points out that the next ten years of China's Internet of things industry (2010 to 2020 year ) Will experience application innovation , technological innovation , Three main development stages of service innovation , Form public management and service , Enterprise application , Three market segments for personal and home applications .

       
Innovative application , Industry formation period —— future 1 to 3 year , The application of public management and service market drives the formation of industrial chain . future 1 to 3 year , China's Internet of things industry is in its formative period . The Internet of things will be promoted under the guidance of the government , Focus on application and demonstration , Driving the formation and development of industrial chain . The initial stage of industrial development will be in public management and government management of service market , city management , Public service and other key areas , Combined with emergency security , intelligent control , Energy Saving , Green environmental protection , Public service and other application scenarios with urgent needs , Form a series of Solutions . With the innovation of application scheme , Maturity and promotion , Driving the sense of industrial chain , Development of transmission communication and operation processing .

       
technological innovation , Standard formation period —— future 3 to 5 year , Formation of industry application standards and key technical standards . After the public management and service market application demonstration forms certain effect , With the development of the next generation Internet and the initial maturity of mobile Internet , Enterprise application , Industry application will become the focus of the development of Internet of things industry . Various application solutions are gradually stable and mature , The division of labor and cooperation in the industrial chain is clearer , Industrial Agglomeration , The industry standard has been initially formed . With the gradual enlargement of industrial scale , The technological innovation of key links such as sensing and sensing is further active , The standardization system of all links of the Internet of things is gradually formed .

       
Service Innovation , Industrial growth period —— future 5 to 10 year , Service oriented business model innovation is active , Personal and home market applications are evolving , Internet of things industry enters into a period of rapid growth . Future 5 reach 10 year , Materials based on Internet of things applications , components and parts , software system , Application platform , Network operation , Application services and other aspects of innovation is active , The industrial chain is gradually mature . Industry standards are rapidly promoted and widely recognized .各类提供物联网服务的新兴公司将成为产业发展的亮点,面向个人家庭市场的物联网应用得到快速发展,新型的商业模式将在此期间形成.在物联网应用,技术,标准逐步成熟,网络逐渐完善,商业模式创新空前活跃的前提下,物联网产业进入高速发展的产业成长期.

        10,目前我国物联网发展过程中亟待突破的瓶颈?

        我们所谁建立标准谁就有发言权,

       
标准化体系的缺失,是制约物联网产业发展的最大瓶颈.物联网在我国的发展还处于初级阶段,即使在全世界范围内,尚没有统一的标准体系出台,标准的缺失将大大制约技术的发展和产品的规模化应用.

        自主知识产权的核心技术有待突破.不掌握关键的核心技术,就不能形成产业核心竞争力,在未来的国际竞争中就会处处受制于人

       
出台相关的可行性产业扶持政策,是中国物联网产业谋求突破的关键因素之一.特别是在金融,交通,能源等关系国民经济发展的重要行业应用领域,政策导向性对产业发展具有重要影响作用.“政策先行”将是中国物联网产业规模化发展的重要保障.很高兴有人能意识到这一点,这一点也是我们的短板

        11,物联网的技术标准

        用一句话概括就是没有技术标准

        物联网正处于产业发展初期,仍有许多瓶颈等待突破,特别是缺乏统一标准体系和成熟商业模式,被看作是制约发展的关键要素.

       
统一,规范的标准是物联网产业化发展的前提.但目前无论是在国内还是在国际上,物联网标准都还处于研究制定阶段,而且标准的制定通常又涉及各方利益的博弈和协调,制定过程极其复杂.

       
目前我国对物联网应用领域的研究与美国,德国等欧美国家基本处于同一起跑线上,中国与德国,美国,韩国一起,成为国际传感网领域标准制定的主导国家之一.目前国际上已成立一个物联网标准研究组,中国在里面占据了一个重要角色,而且中国向国际标准化组织提交的多项标准提案也被采纳,预计正式的标准要到两三年后才能出台.

        12,物联网需发展中可能会遇到的一些问题

        国家安全问题

       
中国大型企业,政府机构,如果与国外机构,进行项目合作,如何确保企业商业机密,国家机密不被泄漏?这不仅是一个技术问题,而且还涉及到国家安全问题,必须引起高度重视.

        隐私问题

       
在物联网中,射频识别技术是一个很重要的技术.在射频识别系统中,标签有可能预先被嵌入任何物品中,而如何确保标签物的拥有者个人隐私不受侵犯便成为射频识别技术以至物联网推广的关键问题.而且,这不仅仅是一个技术问题,还涉及到政治和法律问题.

人工智能,大数据,云计算和物联网的未来发展值得重视,均为前沿产业,有兴趣的朋友,可以查阅多智时代,在此为你推荐几篇优质好文:

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