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【CSDN Editor's note】 Prior to TIOBE In the annual list, A knife never dies C Language successful counter attack
, Become 2017 Programming language of the year. In this article, We combined the most authoritative TIOBE List, The world's largest job engine, And one of the most active communities in the code 
GitHub, Which programming language has been the most popular in the past year? Which programming languages have been standing?2018 What is the language trend of?JavaScript
Why is it abandoned? In this paper, we will answer these questions one by one.

Here is the translation:

The world is driven by technology, All walks of life have been fundamentally changed by technology, And the core of these technologies is the programming language. In this paper, we summarize 2017
The most popular and influential programming language in, An opportunity for developers to improve their skills, It's going to be a very valuable guide for the next decade.

There are hundreds of metrics that can be used to measure programming languages, In this paper, we only focus on the following most authoritative indicators:

TIOBE: By integrating data sources around the world,TIOBE  The list is updated every month.

* As the world's largest job engine,Indeed Is a good measure of programming work, Can help research TIOBE  Before ranking 50 Number of programming language vacancies for.

GitHub:GitHub Is one of the most active code bases today, Every year they create an annual review, Share statistics from their community of programmers. This article quotes their metrics“Pull
Requests Opened” Another indicator of language popularity.

This paper also predicts the future of programming languages, We use a variety of resources to predict the fastest growing languages, The most influential language, And the language most likely to lose popularity.

The most popular programming language

Pictured above TIOBE Data shows up to 2017 year 12 Before the month 20 The most popular programming language, Percentage refers to what a language has“ market share” Number, Total of all languages
100%. As shown in the figure,Java,C,C++ Top three, High market share,Python in the nick of, Market share has increased significantly compared with the previous years. The data shows the most demanding programming positions, We from TIOBE Selected in index 50
The most popular language, Through the job search, we get the top job demand 20 Languages. The most popular Java language, They also have the largest number of vacancies. But what's interesting is that, Similar Apex
These less popular languages are also in front of job openings 20 name, This may mean that the popularity of these languages is on the rise.

“Github Annual review” Provides the first15 name “Pull Requests”,“Pull Requests”
Is a way to submit contributions to open development projects.Javascript stay GitHub It takes a large proportion, More than twice as much as the second language.2017 year,Python adopt 
“Pull Requests”  Exceed Java Become the second most popular language.

Five top programming languages and analysis of their popularity

Why are these top programming languages so popular? The following will be studied in depth Java,C,Python,JavaScript,Ruby  The top five languages, Understand how they are used and why people like them.

Java Ranking first

Java since 90 Since its establishment in the mid-s, Has always been the most popular language. Many large companies in the world use Java To build desktop applications and back ends Web system.

Java There are many popular factors:

Portability: Due to platform independent Java virtual machine(JVM),Java It can run on almost all systems. in addition Java It's also the most popular Android
language, So most of them Android Applications use Java Constructed.

Extensibility:Java Designed for scalability, So it's popular with startups. And because of Java
Is a statically typed language, So it's faster to maintain, Easier to maintain, And backward compatibility, This means that the old version of the language will work perfectly even after the new version is released, Don't worry about rewriting code when a new version comes up.

Huge community. Because of the huge user base, And a lot of Stack Overflow and GitHub Community, You can find answers to almost any problems developers encounter.

C Language is still popular

C It's the oldest. One of the most popular programming languages, Thanks to its near universal portability, And Microsoft, Apple,Linux And Oracle.C
Language is also a car, The most popular language for embedded systems in electronics and other devices. Everything we touch today, From cell phone to alarm clock, Basically C The influence of direct language writing.

So why is it still popular today, Even win 2017 TIOBE Programming language of the year for the list
? First, It is essentially a portable assembly language, Applicable to almost all systems. Secondly,C It also has fully compliant operating system and embedded system( Such as automobile dashboard) Characteristics. in addition, Any programmer can learn from C
Benefit from language learning, Many online algorithms are written and shared in C Completed in.

C Language is programming language in essence“ General language”, image C ++ and C# In this way C Derivatives are also the most popular 5 One of the languages, It also explains why C
Language still has great influence today.

Rising Python

In the past 15 Mid year,Python Has been on a steady rise, It finally broke through a few years ago TIOBE
Top five on the list, This is because of machine learning, Artificial intelligence(AI), Big data and other technologies are heavily dependent on Python. In addition, network security is also one of the important issues in our era, Also from Python

Python Now it's the most popular introductory language in the University, It is also often listed as a second or third language by experienced developers.

JavaScript Continue to dominate

Thanks to the ubiquitous web browser,JavaScript Become one of the most popular programming languages in the world, And in GitHub  Of “Pull Requests”  Top of the list.

JavaScript Allow developers to add interactive effects to web pages, It is often associated with HTML Work together, Now use it alone JavaScript To build Web
Applications are becoming more common. Because of its simplicity and efficiency, More and more start-ups and technology companies are passing Node.js Framework in the back end JavaScript.

Entrepreneur's favorite—— Ruby

Ruby One of the most popular languages for tech start-ups, Many Silicon Valley unicorns are built on Ruby upper, Include Airbnb,Twitch,GitHub and
Twitter.Ruby on Rails It's a run Ruby Integrity Web Application framework, It also drives Ruby Popularity of.

meanwhile,Ruby It is also favored by many developers. First,Ruby There is a simple and beautiful grammar, Let developers do more with less code. Secondly,Ruby on Rails
Can make Web Applications take less time to run than other frameworks.

however Ruby Lack of scalability, It's a dynamically typed language, Very flexible. But with Ruby
Application growth, The dynamic nature of language hides the source of code errors, And consume a lot of computing resources—— This is also true. Twitter from Ruby Switch to Java Reasons for.

Twitter Original use Ruby, Later switch to Java, This makes it easier to scale

2018 Prediction of programming language trend in

According to the trend of previous years, We are sure that the list of top programming languages will not change much every year. So where is the change going to happen? 

Kotlin,C  Fastest growing

TIOBE Every year, we check the language of the year, In recent years, the winners are Go(2016),Java(2015) and JavaScript(2014). stay TIOBE
2017 Before the annual programming language,Kotlin Zeng Yu C Together, they become candidates for the language of the year, Although in the end C Win victory, But there's no denying it, Both are in the stage of rapid development—— Oldest 
C language(1987 year), Abreast of the times Kotlin language(2011 year) .


For statically typed programming languages Kotlin Speaking,2017 It went through a series of great events in: Be named Android Official development language of the platform, Not only become Android
The most popular mobile development platform, It is still Windows Desktop and Linux The third most popular development platform.

Kotlin There are several reasons why, The most important thing is that it Java Of100% Interoperability, And in Java virtual machine(Java It's another kind of official Android
language) Facts running on.Kotlin Can compile JavaScript, So it's flexible in front-end and back-end development.

C language

As we mentioned before,C It is the perfect language of embedded system. And C
It is also one of the top programming languages for Internet of things devices, Includes wearable devices and car dashboard. As more products become“ clever”, We will see C Will continue to expand the use of.

Native languages will have more attempts to move towards hardware

The popularity of programming languages is one thing, But which languages will have a big impact in the next few years? Determine if the language is“ Influential” To see the technologies built on it, It also depends on the ability of this language to solve the inherent software problems.

Moore's law states, The computing power will be 18 Double in months, And for the first time in decades, computer chip makers
Not keeping up with the development of computing power. This means that software developers need to find a way, With the same computing power to make powerful Web
application program. In addition, the power consumption of hardware should be considered, So we need to make hardware and software as efficient as possible.

Factual proof, Faster and faster response capabilities allow you to write more efficient code, And we can expect Go,Swift,Rust In the future, there will be more attempts to move towards hardware.

JavaScript Will lose value?

that 2018 What languages will begin to lose value in? “JavaScript.”

In the past few years,Javascript It has reached a very popular level, So there's really no way to find the track of future development.

In addition, there are other factors superimposed on JavaScript upper. First,WebAssembly The improvement provides more web language choices for developers. In other words, There will be many languages in the near future
WebAssembly back-end. after JavaScript Will begin to die, Because people will use their preferred language for clients Web Development. Plus JavaScript
The use of, Once there's a better one Web option, Believe that developers will soon abandon it.

Written in the end

Programming language driven technology world, Opportunities and challenges coexist. From machine learning to network security, From network applications to battery powered, For software developers, I hope the trend forecast in this paper can give you some guidance.

But no matter how the technological environment changes, It's not wrong to keep an enterprising mind, The following is an inventory of some programming language learning resources, I hope it works for you:



















original text:Most Popular and Influential Programming Languages of 2018



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